Art Methods and Media

Two-Dimensional Media
Drawing- the art of representing objects or forms on a surface chiefly by means of lines
Painting- the art or process of applying paints to a surface such as canvas, to make a picture or other artistic composition
Mixed Media- a technique involving the use of two or more artistic media, such as ink and pastel or painting and collage that are combined in a single composition
Definitions From

From Living with Art, Mark Getlein

Materials for Drawing
·       Pigment- all drawing media are based on pigment. It is a powdered coloring material mixed with a substance that enables it to adhere to the drawing surface.
Dry Media
·       Pencil- Graphite: A soft crystalline form of carbon first discovered in the 16th century.
·       Charcoal- burned sticks of wood- the best quality of charcoal coming from special vine wood heated in a kiln until only carbon remains.
·       Binder- The substance that holds particles of pigments together.
·       Chalks-A drier, crumbly drawing tool made with a nonfat binder. They generally blend well and can be overlaid to produce shaded effects.
·       Crayons- made with a fatty or greasy binder. Crayons are harder to blend than chalks. Wax crayons, Lithographic crayons, Oil-based crayons, and Conte crayons
·       Pastel- the most well-known chalk medium. They come in a full range of colors and different degrees of hardness.
Liquid Media
·       Pen and Ink- Ink flows, often providing an uninterrupted line. With pen and ink you can create calligraphic or gestural lines, which are thick-and-thin lines.
·       Ink Wash- Ink diluted with water and applied with a brush.
·       Brush and Ink- Another tool used for applying Ink. An Ideal tool for creating calligraphic lines. The Brush has long been a favorite tool of Asian artists.
Digital Realms
·       Various drawing programs have been made for use with computers- a popular one being Adobe Illustrator.
·       Paint- made of pigment, powdered color, compounded with a medium or vehicle.
·       Medium- A liquid that holds the particles of pigment together without dissolving them. The medium generally acts or includes a binder.
·       Binder- An ingredient that ensures that the paint, even when diluted and spread thinly, will adhere to the surface.
·       Aqueous media- can be diluted with water.
·       Nonaqueous media- Require a dilutant other then water (Oil paints- turpentine or mineral spirits).
·       Support- Surface on which paint is applied. Canvas, Paper, Wood panel, Wall…
·       Primer- Preliminary coating.
·       Gesso- a brilliant white undercoating made of inert pigment such as chalk or plaster and used as ground for paint, especially for tempera.
·       Fresco- a painting medium in which colors are applied to a plaster ground, usually a wall (mural) or ceiling. In buon fresco, also called true fresco, colors are applied before the plaster dries and thus bond with the surface. In fresco secco (“dry fresco”) colors are applied to dry plaster.
·       Tempera- Paint in which the pigment is compounded with an aqueous, emulsified vehicle such as egg yolk.
·       Watercolor- A painting medium in which the binder is Gum Arabic.
·       Gouache- Watercolor with inert white pigment added. Colors are opaque.
·       Acrylic- a synthetic plastic resin used as a binder for artists’ paints.
·       Airbrushing- Diluted paint is sprayed onto a surface.
·       Oil paint- Consists of pigment compounded with oil, usually linseed oil. The oil acts as a binder, creating as it dries a transparent film in which the pigment is suspended. An outstanding characteristic of oil paint is that it dries very slowly.
·       Glazes- In oil painting, a thin, translucent layer of color, generally applied over another color.
·       Impasto- From the Italian for “paste”, a thick application of paint.
Mixed Media
·       Collage- From the French for “glue,” the practice of pasting shapes cut from such real-world sources as magazines, newspapers, wallpaper, and fabric onto a surface.


The Vanitas tradition began in Holland and Northern Europe in the mid to late 17th c.
"The Latin word vanitas has two different applications as does its English cognate ‘vanity’. The original Latin adjective vanus means both ‘empty’ and ‘frivolous’. In the Vanitas tradition of the 17th century, Vanitas paintings were considered by their owners to be both beautiful objects and works of spiritual contemplation concerned with the impermanence of man and his earthly pleasures in the face of the unavoidable and definitive nature of death. The most immediate and universal symbol of mortality in the Vanitas tradition is the human skull but other objects also held special significance as references to the passing of time and fragility of human existence. The book, candles, hourglass, mirrors, flowers, insects, soap bubbles and shadows all combined to create both a literal and abstract symbolism suggestive of the transience of life."

Vanitas Still Life by Jacques de Gheyn the Elder (1603)  
Audrey Flack - Marilyn Vanitas (1976-78)

RIJKS Museum - Vanitas/Transience

Vanitas_the Transience of Earthly Pleasures
Vanitas- by Charlotte Cornaton

From Living with Art, Mark Getlein

Edition- The practice of limiting the number of impressions of a print is a relatively recent development, first seen in the late 19th century. An edition is the total number of prints made from a given plate or block. The size of an edition is written on each print and the prints are individually numbered with it. The artist’s signature indicates of the print and acts as a guarantee of the edition.

Registration- The precise alignment of impressions made by two or more printing blocks or plates on the same sheet of paper, as when printing an image in several colors.

Relief- Technique in which portions of a block meant to be printed are raised. Areas that will not print are cut away, leaving raised areas to take the ink.

Woodcut- A relief printmaking method in which a block of wood is carved so as to leave the image areas raised from the background.

Linocut- A relief printmaking technique in which the printing surface is a thick layer of linoleum, sometimes mounted on a wooden block for support.

Wood engraving- Similar to woodcut, a relief printmaking process in which the image is cut on the end grain of a wood plank, resulting in a “white-line” impression.

Intaglio- Printmaking techniques in which the lines or areas that will take the ink are incised into the printing plate, rather than raised above it. Aquatint, dry point, etching and mezzotint are intaglio techniques.

Engraving- An intaglio printmaking method in which lines are cut into a metal plate using a sharp tool called a burin, which creates a clean, v-shaped channel. Also, a print resulting from this technique.

Dry point- An intaglio printmaking technique similar to engraving in which the design is scratched directly into a metal plate with a sharp, pointed, tool that is held like a pen. As it cuts through the metal, the tool raises a rough edge called a burr, which, if left in place, produces a soft, velvety line when printed, Also, a print by this method.

Mezzotint- An intaglio printmaking technique in which the printing plate is first roughened with a special tool called a rocker, which creates a fine pattern of burrs. Inked and printed at this point, the plate would print a velvety black. Values are created by smoothing away the burrs in varying degrees with a scraper or burnisher (smoothing the plate altogether creates a non-printing area, or white).

Etching- An intaglio printmaking method in which the design is bitten into the printing plate with acid. Also, the resultant print. To create an etching, a metal plate is covered with an acid-resistant ground. The design is drawn with a sharp, pen-like tool that scratches the ground to reveal the metal beneath. The plate is then submerged in acid, which bites into the exposed metal. The longer the plate remains in contact with the acid, the deeper the bite, and the darker the line it will print.

Aquatint- This technique is used to create tone and texture in a print. The plate is sprinkled with a powdered resin, heated so the resin melts and clings, then given an acid bath to bite the areas not covered by the resin, creating a porous ground. Aquatint is rarely employed by itself, but rather in combination with other intaglio methods.

Lithography- A planographic printmaking technique based on the fact that oil and water repel each other. The design to be printed is drawn in greasy crayon or ink on the printing surface- traditionally a block of fine-grained stone, but today more frequently a plate of zinc or aluminum. The printing surface is dampened, then inked. The oil-based ink adheres to the greasy areas and is repelled by the damp areas.

Planographic-The image areas are level with the surface of the printing plate.

Tusche- A grease-based liquid similar to paint used on lithography plates.

Monotype- A planographic printmaking method resulting in a single impression. A typical technique is to paint the design in oil paint on a plate of glass or metal. While the paint is still wet, a piece of paper is laid over it, and pressure is applied to transfer the design from the plate to the paper.

Screen printing- (Serigraphy or Silkscreen) A printmaking method in which the image is transferred to paper by forcing ink through a fine mesh in which the areas not meant to print have been blocked; a stencil technique.
Creativity and Inspiration
Torn Artist Journal Project

Art journals are creative tools used to record ideas & observations, to collect material that inspires you and to experiment. Art journals are often kept to explore possibilities for future artworks, to express yourself through image and text and to record fleeting thoughts.
By creating an art journal in a short period of time you will feel accomplished and receptive to the art making process.

Why make an art journal?
Develop creativity
Experiment freely
 Share personal thoughts
Understand the art making process
Feel a sense of accomplishment when finished

Create artworks that show experimentation
 Use a variety of art methods and media
 Carefully compose each page and use all space.
Complete every page in the journal
Cover Design
Your cover design can say a great deal about your journal. Personalize your cover.   Use torn decorative paper or magazine. 

Page Design
In the beginning: Because, starting with a blank page is often intimidating, each time you begin a new page wash it with inks or watercolors. You can selectively layer washed ink or watercolor color to create a more interesting surface.

Be sure to consider the entire page in each of your journal entries.

Page of Media:  Test out the different types of media by doodling or scribbling.  Write down next to your scribble what the media is.
In the style of Edvard Munch: Cut up and paste Edvard Munch’s, The Scream, 1893.  Change it by moving pieces around, eliminating areas, adding drawn or collaged images.
Using The Scream as an example create a page using Munch’s style as your inspiration.
Getting to know your classmates: Draw a 2-minute blind contour portrait of one of your classmates.
Creativity in your life: Write, draw, paint or collage images regarding the questions What does the word creative mean to you and how do you express your creativity in everyday living?
Your definition of art: Write, draw, paint or collage images regarding the question what is “art” to you?
Art in your life: Write, draw, paint or collage how art serves a purpose in your life.
Identity: Collage images from magazines that express who you are.
Personal struggles: Write, draw, paint or collage what you are struggling with?
Good thoughts: Make a page about positive thoughts with writing or imagery.
Lines: Draw thin, thick, long and short lines all over your page.
Pattern: Draw and paint a made up pattern.
Circles: Draw circles on a sheet of paper. Draw patterns or images inside them.  Color them in.  Cut them out.  Place them in a composition on your page.
Rubbings: Place your page on top of items with texture and rub a pencil or Conte crayon over your page.
Texture: Use paper/glue/paint to create a composition with actual texture.
Wrong handed: Write or draw with your wrong hand.
Stitch and Paint: Draw and paint a picture.  Stitch with thread to define the edges.
Imprints: Use your fingerprints in a composition by pressing them into paint or ink and arranging them.
Words: Write, draw, paint or collage what  a set of opposite words mean to you.  You can use a page spread for this.  Ex. Power/Powerless, Trapped/Free, War/Peace, Happy/Sad....
Dream or Nightmare: Write, draw, paint or collage a dream or nightmare you have had.
In the bag: Draw & color items in your bag or pockets and let them over lap.
Shapes: Cut out shapes in your page.  
Personal note: Fold up a piece of paper into an envelope.  Draw/ paint the envelope, and then paste it onto your page.   Place a letter in the journal for only your eyes.
Daily routine: Use a page for a shopping list.
Found objects: Collect objects/wrappers/tickets/stamps… from daily life and create a composition.  

Figural Sculpture

Auguste Rodin (French, 1840–1917)
brought monumental public sculpture into the modern era. Though he was well acquainted with the academic traditions and idealized subjects of classical and Renaissance sculpture, Rodin’s aim in his work was to be absolutely faithful to nature. His uncanny ability to convey movement and to show the inner feelings of the men and women he portrayed, the bravura of his light-catching modeling, and his extraordinary use of similar figures in different mediums, have established him as one of the greatest sculptors of all time.
Auguste Rodin, The Thinker
Art project: We will explore form through sketching and sculpting Rodin’s figures.

Sketch a sculptural work of Rodin’s:
Extended Sketch

Make a small gestural sculpture out of clay mimicking your drawings.
* Don't forget the Rodin Museum in Philadelphia is open to the public. See area arts listings.
Eric Fishl
Ron Mueck
Ron Mueck, Two Women

(30 min)

Takashi Horisaki

Richard Serra
Torqued and Sequence

Robert Indiana

Jeff Koons
Balloon Dog (Yellow), 1994–2000
High chromium stainless steel with transparent color coating; 121 x 143 x 45 in.

Architects, engineers and students compete to see whose team can build the most spectacular structure using little more than cans of food at Canstruction, a design/build competition currently held in cities throughout North America.
All these cans go to the food bank afterwards.

explore different constructions and purposes, functions of three-dimensional media.

•Art project: Clay model
Students will experience the
difference between two-
dimensional and three-
dimensional art by modeling
a sculpture of their own.

Art with Nature
•A human arrangement of natural materials.

Andy Goldsworthy

Exploration of architecture in various historical and cultural contexts

What is it?

Basic Systems-

Religious - Cathedrals

Near by Cathedral
Bryn Athyn Cathedral
Tours available






Attack Of The Cookie-cutter Home
by David Kopec



Answer the questions and create the following piece in your journals:

Part A:
Visually describe an architectural space in your journal that you define using some of the concepts which you have discovered through David Byrne’s True Stories and class discussion. You may draw or paint a space, create one through collage, or use photography to show it. Consider the history of the landmark or place. How are your interpretations of the space conditioned by your own experience?

Part B:

What types of architectural structures-- buildings, houses, churches… do you appreciate the most? What draws you to them? What image do they present?

Most US houses today are commonly constructed using the skeleton-and-skin system- built with a skeleton of wood beams nailed together, topped with a sheathing of light wood boards, shingles, aluminum siding, or the like. This construction is largely a product of the industrial revolution. How do you feel about the increase in the construction of cookie-cutter houses and strip malls which are typically similar in appearance?

Some have said that NE Philly was a slum waiting to happen because of the crowding houses. How does this statement affect you?

How do you feel about tearing down old for new? Do you have an example?

How does living in a mansion-- “one of America’s castles” vs. living in cookie-cutter houses change your psyche?

How would having more space both inside and out affect you?

Do you notice how solid a building looks (example- aluminum sided house vs. brick)? Does this make a difference to you?

How do you feel about old churches vs. new?

One of Holy Family’s core attitudes is aesthetic sense. Define aesthetic sense and describe how cookie-cutter homes, strip malls, prefabricated buildings, corporate complexes and modern places of worship affect yours.

What kind of environment does this classroom (ETC 004) create? What image does the building (ETC) present?

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